Monthly Archives: August 2010

Of Memes, Temes and Cotton Tours

A couple of weeks ago, I attended the East Alabama Crops Tour, an annual event that started when I was still in high school, Jimmy Carter was president and cotton was king in Dixie.

Among east and central Alabama farmers, it remains as popular as ever, still planned, executed and organized by Dr. Jeff Clary, the enthusiastic, stalwart Extension employee who launched the first tour as a young Extension agent way back in 1978.

For me, the tour serves as a reminder, a poignant reminder, of a time, not too long ago, when Extension fit seamlessly into the prevailing communications landscape —one that has changed drastically and inalterably in the 32 years since the tour’s inauguration.

The stark realization of just how much the landscape has changed led me several years ago to take stock of what was happening, what it portended for the future of Cooperative Extension, and how we could master the prevailing tools of the new digital information order, namely social media.

Up to now, I’ve viewed these tools in terms of how Extension educators could use them to enhance current outreach methods rather than as the basis for a whole new approach to outreach.

To put it another way, I’ve looked at social media as an add-on rather than as the harbinger of a new outreach paradigm.

I think I’ve been wrong all along.  A recent Opinionator piece in the New York Times has helped me realize that.

The Rise of the Third Replicator

“All around us information seems to be multiplying at an ever-increasing pace,” writes Susan Blackmore in the New York Times’s Aug. 22 Opinionator.  “New books are published, new designs for toasters and i-gadgets appear, new music is composed or synthesized and, perhaps above all, new content is uploaded into cyberspace.”

What accounts for this dramatic expansion of information?  Blackmore, freelance writer, futurist and author of The Meme Machine, believes it’s an effect of the next quantum leap in evolution, which she describes as the third replicator.

Genes were the first replicator, a tangible expression of which is humanity, followed by the second replicator — human forebears who used their singular genetic inheritance to imitate behaviors in the form of sounds, skills and habits and passed them along to succeeding generations.  Over time, these behaviors, now described by some evolutionary biologists as memes, competed to be selected by humans to be copied again.

So began the succeeding evolutionary phase, the second replicator, a process driven by a combination of genes and memes.

Temes: The Next Step beyond Memes?

Blackmore now believes we are seeing the first evidence of a third replicator expressed as temes (short for technological memes) — “the digital information stored, copied, varied and selected by machines.”

While conceding that temes remain a hotly debated issue, she says we can’t ignore the fact that the Internet continues to create new forms of information at increasingly accelerated rates.

“Already there are examples of computer programs recombining old texts to create new essays or poems, translating texts to create new versions, and selecting between vast quantities of text, images and data,” says Blackmore.

Likewise, each inquiry to Google, Alta or Yahoo generates new combinations of pages based on the search engines’ own algorithms as well as previous searches and link structures.

Back to my stark realization: In the future, the primary preoccupation of all knowledge providers will be ramping up the speed and volume of information delivery to keep pace within this new digital order.

This explains why I’ve most likely been wrong all along. Up to now I’ve thought of social media as a kind of add-on — as something that could be used to enhance current Extension methods. 

 Now I’m convinced that social media, rather than traditional Extension methods, will be the basis of all that we do.

Still a Place for the Old Order

Yet, I’m not convinced this will lead to the wholesale abandonment of the old order. There will still be a place for the old order, for the face-to-face encounters that once characterized so much of our work.

This undoubtedly accounts for why the East Alabama Crops Tour endures after all these years.  Human beings will always prize personal encounters over virtual encounters.   For me, the face-to-face encounters that have often followed online intellectual and professional friendships have been one of the most satisfying effects of my use of social media.

It’s even possible that the historic role we Extension educators have played in facilitating these sorts of personal relationships may go a long way toward helping distinguish us from others players within the new digital information order.

Yet, this should not detract from the take-home message: that social media amounts to a paradigm shift, not an add-on.

Back to the Future: A Training Strategy for Cooperative Extension

We have a saying here in Alabama that proclaims our happiness at not occupying the rock-bottom place on every state list:  “Thank God for Mississippi.”

Granted, as far as most state lists go, Alabama, historically speaking, hasn’t fared that well.  Even so, we Alabamians have always been a bit of an anomaly.  We figure high on some lists — music, athletics and colorful political figures, to name only a few.    Alabama also has the high distinction of pioneering much of what is known today as Cooperative Extension work, thanks to the diligent efforts of Alabama educators, such as Booker T. Washington, George Washington Carver, Luther Duncan and P.O. Davis, to name only a few of Alabama’s many Extension luminaries.

Of course, Alabama’s Extension history comprises only a part of an unusually ample treasure trove — something that should be mined every Extension program in the nation.  Indeed, gaining a better understanding our early 20th century past will better equip us to become effective educators and professionals in the future as we reengineer our mission and outreach methods to the challenges of the 21st century.

How? By helping Extension become an axial organization.  By axial organization, I mean one in which knowledge of our past — namely, knowledge of how our past uniquely equips us for the future and, equally important, how it distinguishes us from our competitors — informs everything that we do.

There are several reasons why I think this knowledge is so important.

Our Murky Image

First starters and partly through no fault of our own, Cooperative Extension has struggled with a murky organizational image.  That’s not surprising: The Extension mission has evolved in many different ways over the past century.  Simply put, we’re multifaceted.  In fact, the multifaceted nature of our mission arguably should be regarded as one of our operating costs.

There is a need and a place for marketing to dispel some of this murkiness among our diverse audiences, but our employees often lack a clear understanding of Cooperative Extension too. 

Organizational Building

Extension methods are a highly nuanced and developed, albeit evolving, set of skills.  They have had to be. We are, after all, the ultimate educational improvisers.

Older employees have often pointed out that mastery of these highly nuanced skills and principles have been one o f the most rewarding aspects of Extension work.

Even so, for a variety of reasons, many younger Extension educators lack an adequate grasp of these methods, and, most important, how they must be refined to ensure that Extension outreach work remains relevant among 21st century audiences.

This dovetails closely with more recent insights associated with that perennial question that has occupied management experts and social psychologists for decades: What motivates us and, equally important, what are the factors that produce professional contentment and achievement?

Bestselling author Dan Pink, writing in “Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us,” explores the how the need to grow, to develop and realize our fullest potential has emerged as a major motivator in the 21st century.

In the course of demonstrating to our employees the continued relevance of our history and mission, we can go a long way toward instilling them with a renewed passion for Extension work.

Surviving in a Global Knowledge Economy

Readers of my weblog are fully aware of how much worry, not to mention, prose, I’ve expended on implications of the emerging knowledge economy to Extension’s future.

At one time, we were one of the dominant knowledge providers within a comparatively sparse knowledge landscape. But as the 21st century progresses, our once commanding presence has steadily eroded.  The old information order in which people looked to face-to-face encounters and to traditional media, namely print and broadcast media, as traditional sources of knowledge is being steady supplanted by virtual sources of knowledge — search engines, online communities and other emerging technologies — all of which can be accessed at virtually the speed of light.

We must underscore to our educators and professional the critical need to distinguish ourselves from other knowledge providers within what Thomas Friedman has aptly described as “the flat world.” Much of this will depend on how successfully we adopt social media strategies as a way to distinguish ourselves from other knowledge providers.

Training’s Focus

So, we’ve outlined the challenges.  What do we do next?  We develop training — training to acquaint our participants with the three essential insights they will need to be fully equipped for 21st century Extension work.

These include our close association working knowledge and wiki (or collaborative) knowledge and our historically strong emphasis on dialogue and empowerment.

Extension’s “Working Knowledge” Legacy

Extension educators and professionals must develop a keen awareness of and appreciation for the role Cooperative Extension has historically played in advancing practical knowledge to a preeminent place in American life. 

We must remember, though, that Extension educators accomplished something even more significant: they added value to practical knowledge, transforming it into working knowledge by showing ordinary Americans how to use it to make meaningful changes in their lives and livelihoods.  It is a unique form of knowledge reflected in the work of early Extension forerunners, Seaman Knapp and Alabama’s own Booker T. Washington. 

Providing employees with a deeper understanding of this working knowledge legacy will secure a greater organizational clarity, not only internally but, ultimately, also externally.

Equally important, it will help them understand that while our educators can’t compete with search engines, they are still equipped to provide their clients with deep context, showing how practical application of knowledge can enrich their lives in lasting, meaningful ways.

Wiki Knowledge

 To an increasing degree, collaborative knowledge — so-called wiki knowledge that emphasizes the power of collaborative wisdom and learning — is being adopted by everyone from global companies to educational institutions.

But isn’t working knowledge — the collaborative, empowering knowledge that has characterized Cooperative Extension work for the past century — a forerunner of this wiki approach?  Wasn’t this kind of knowledge first foreshadowed in Seaman Knapp’s demonstration plots and Booker T. Washington’s Farm Demonstration Wagon?

This long institutional commitment to collaborative knowledge is yet another example of how Extension is uniquely equipped to rise to the challenges of the 21st century knowledge economy. 

Underscoring our longstanding organizational commitment to collaborative knowledge will instill our employees with a keener understanding of and appreciation for the role social media techniques will play in leveraging their outreach efforts.

Dialogue and Empowerment

Over the last few years, worsening deficit problems, coupled with a host of cultural and social factors, have forced policymakers at all levels to rethink the way they deliver programs.  

For example, British sociologist Anthony Giddens has observed that the sort of top/down bureaucratic approach that once characterized public programs, whether at the central, provincial or local level, is passé.  This has led to the formation of a new approach built on dialogue and empowerment that encourages clients to address change by making things happen themselves rather than having things happen to them.

Largely because of its history, Cooperative Extension is uniquely equipped to operate within this changed public policy landscape.  Indeed, this change from a traditional top/down problem-solving approach to one that emphasizes dialogue and empowerment presents Cooperative Extension educators with one of the greatest opportunities in our history to showcase our distinctive outreach legacy, which is reflected in historic emphasis on working and collaborative knowledge.


Some Extension professionals may deride this approach as a protracted form of navel-gazing.  To be honest, it is.  Even so, we believe a productive form of navel-gazing is long overdue in our ranks.  A heightened understanding our history will help us meet two critical challenges in the coming years: It will help us achieve a stronger grasp of the skills and insights required for our survival in a 21st century knowledge economy and, equally important, it will help us distinguish ourselves from millions of other knowledge providers on an increasingly crowded landscape.